Changes between Initial Version and Version 1 of TracStandalone

2017-11-22 18:51:28 (4 years ago)



  • TracStandalone

    v1 v1  
     1= Tracd = 
     3Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server. 
     4It can be used in a variety of situations, from a test or development server to a multiprocess setup behind another web server used as a load balancer. 
     6== Pros == 
     8 * Fewer dependencies: You don't need to install apache or any other web-server. 
     9 * Fast: Should be almost as fast as the [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] version (and much faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI]), even more so since version 0.12 where the HTTP/1.1 version of the protocol is enabled by default 
     10 * Automatic reloading: For development, Tracd can be used in ''auto_reload'' mode, which will automatically restart the server whenever you make a change to the code (in Trac itself or in a plugin). 
     12== Cons == 
     14 * Fewer features: Tracd implements a very simple web-server and is not as configurable or as scalable as Apache httpd. 
     15 * No native HTTPS support: [ sslwrap] can be used instead, 
     16   or [ stunnel -- a tutorial on how to use stunnel with tracd] or Apache with mod_proxy. 
     18== Usage examples == 
     20A single project on port 8080. (http://localhost:8080/) 
     22 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project 
     24Stricly speaking this will make your Trac accessible to everybody from your network rather than ''localhost only''. To truly limit it use ''--hostname'' option. 
     26 $ tracd --hostname=localhost -p 8080 /path/to/project 
     28With more than one project. (http://localhost:8080/project1/ and http://localhost:8080/project2/) 
     30 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2 
     33You can't have the last portion of the path identical between the projects since Trac uses that name to keep the URLs of the 
     34different projects unique. So if you use `/project1/path/to` and `/project2/path/to`, you will only see the second project. 
     36An alternative way to serve multiple projects is to specify a parent directory in which each subdirectory is a Trac project, using the `-e` option. The example above could be rewritten: 
     38 $ tracd -p 8080 -e /path/to 
     41To exit the server on Windows, be sure to use {{{CTRL-BREAK}}} -- using {{{CTRL-C}}} will leave a Python process running in the background. 
     43== Installing as a Windows Service == 
     45=== Option 1 === 
     46To install as a Windows service, get the [ SRVANY] utility and run: 
     48 C:\path\to\instsrv.exe tracd C:\path\to\srvany.exe 
     49 reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters /v Application /d "\"C:\path\to\python.exe\" \"C:\path\to\python\scripts\\" <your tracd parameters>" 
     50 net start tracd 
     53'''DO NOT''' use {{{tracd.exe}}}.  Instead register {{{python.exe}}} directly with {{{}}} as a parameter.  If you use {{{tracd.exe}}}, it will spawn the python process without SRVANY's knowledge.  This python process will survive a {{{net stop tracd}}}. 
     55If you want tracd to start automatically when you boot Windows, do: 
     57 sc config tracd start= auto 
     60The spacing here is important. 
     63Once the service is installed, it might be simpler to run the Registry Editor rather than use the `reg add` command documented above.  Navigate to:[[BR]] 
     66Three (string) parameters are provided: 
     67||!AppDirectory ||C:\Python26\ || 
     68||Application ||python.exe || 
     69||!AppParameters ||scripts\ -p 8080 ... || 
     71Note that, if the !AppDirectory is set as above, the paths of the executable ''and'' of the script name and parameter values are relative to the directory.  This makes updating Python a little simpler because the change can be limited, here, to a single point. 
     72(This is true for the path to the .htpasswd file, as well, despite the documentation calling out the /full/path/to/htpasswd; however, you may not wish to store that file under the Python directory.) 
     75For Windows 7 User, srvany.exe may not be an option, so you can use [ WINSERV] utility and run: 
     77"C:\path\to\winserv.exe" install tracd -displayname "tracd" -start auto "C:\path\to\python.exe" c:\path\to\python\scripts\ <your tracd parameters>" 
     79net start tracd 
     82=== Option 2 === 
     84Use [ WindowsServiceScript], available at [ Trac Hacks]. Installs, removes, starts, stops, etc. your Trac service. 
     86=== Option 3 === 
     88also cygwin's cygrunsrv.exe can be used: 
     90$ cygrunsrv --install tracd --path /cygdrive/c/Python27/Scripts/tracd.exe --args '--port 8000 --env-parent-dir E:\IssueTrackers\Trac\Projects' 
     91$ net start tracd 
     94== Using Authentication == 
     96Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. Digest is considered more secure. The examples below use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` in the command line. 
     98The general format for using authentication is: 
     100 $ tracd -p port --auth="base_project_dir,password_file_path,realm" project_path 
     103 * '''base_project_dir''': the base directory of the project specified as follows: 
     104   * when serving multiple projects: ''relative'' to the `project_path` 
     105   * when serving only a single project (`-s`): the name of the project directory 
     106 Don't use an absolute path here as this won't work. ''Note:'' This parameter is case-sensitive even for environments on Windows. 
     107 * '''password_file_path''': path to the password file 
     108 * '''realm''': the realm name (can be anything) 
     109 * '''project_path''': path of the project 
     111 * **`--auth`** in the above means use Digest authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` if you want to use Basic auth.  Although Basic authentication does not require a "realm", the command parser does, so the second comma is required, followed directly by the closing quote for an empty realm name. 
     116 $ tracd -p 8080 \ 
     117   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile," /path/to/project1 
     120Of course, the password file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project: 
     122 $ tracd -p 8080 \ 
     123   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile," \ 
     124   --auth="project2,/path/to/passwordfile," \ 
     125   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2 
     128Another way to share the password file is to specify "*" for the project name: 
     130 $ tracd -p 8080 \ 
     131   --auth="*,/path/to/users.htdigest," \ 
     132   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2 
     135=== Basic Authorization: Using a htpasswd password file === 
     136This section describes how to use `tracd` with Apache .htpasswd files. 
     138  Note: It is necessary (at least with Python 2.6) to install the fcrypt package in order to 
     139  decode the htpasswd format.  Trac source code attempt an `import crypt` first, but there 
     140  is no such package for Python 2.6. 
     142To create a .htpasswd file use Apache's `htpasswd` command (see [#GeneratingPasswordsWithoutApache below] for a method to create these files without using Apache): 
     144 $ sudo htpasswd -c /path/to/env/.htpasswd username 
     146then for additional users: 
     148 $ sudo htpasswd /path/to/env/.htpasswd username2 
     151Then to start `tracd` run something like this: 
     153 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="projectdirname,/fullpath/environmentname/.htpasswd,realmname" /fullpath/environmentname 
     156For example: 
     158 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="testenv,/srv/tracenv/testenv/.htpasswd,My Test Env" /srv/tracenv/testenv 
     160''Note:'' You might need to pass "-m" as a parameter to htpasswd on some platforms (OpenBSD). 
     162=== Digest authentication: Using a htdigest password file === 
     164If you have Apache available, you can use the htdigest command to generate the password file. Type 'htdigest' to get some usage instructions, or read [ this page] from the Apache manual to get precise instructions.  You'll be prompted for a password to enter for each user that you create.  For the name of the password file, you can use whatever you like, but if you use something like `users.htdigest` it will remind you what the file contains. As a suggestion, put it in your <projectname>/conf folder along with the [TracIni trac.ini] file. 
     166Note that you can start tracd without the --auth argument, but if you click on the ''Login'' link you will get an error. 
     168=== Generating Passwords Without Apache === 
     170Basic Authorization can be accomplished via this [ online HTTP Password generator].  Copy the generated password-hash line to the .htpasswd file on your system. 
     172You can use this simple Python script to generate a '''digest''' password file: 
     176from optparse import OptionParser 
     177# The md5 module is deprecated in Python 2.5 
     179    from hashlib import md5 
     180except ImportError: 
     181    from md5 import md5 
     182realm = 'trac' 
     184# build the options 
     185usage = "usage: %prog [options]" 
     186parser = OptionParser(usage=usage) 
     187parser.add_option("-u", "--username",action="store", dest="username", type = "string", 
     188                  help="the username for whom to generate a password") 
     189parser.add_option("-p", "--password",action="store", dest="password", type = "string", 
     190                  help="the password to use") 
     191parser.add_option("-r", "--realm",action="store", dest="realm", type = "string", 
     192                  help="the realm in which to create the digest") 
     193(options, args) = parser.parse_args() 
     195# check options 
     196if (options.username is None) or (options.password is None): 
     197   parser.error("You must supply both the username and password") 
     198if (options.realm is not None): 
     199   realm = options.realm 
     201# Generate the string to enter into the htdigest file 
     202kd = lambda x: md5(':'.join(x)).hexdigest() 
     203print ':'.join((options.username, realm, kd([options.username, realm, options.password]))) 
     206Note: If you use the above script you must set the realm in the `--auth` argument to '''`trac`'''. Example usage (assuming you saved the script as 
     209 $ python -u username -p password >> c:\digest.txt 
     210 $ tracd --port 8000 --auth=proj_name,c:\digest.txt,trac c:\path\to\proj_name 
     213==== Using `md5sum` 
     214It is possible to use `md5sum` utility to generate digest-password file: 
     216 $ printf "${user}:trac:${password}" | md5sum - >>user.htdigest 
     218and manually delete " -" from the end and add "${user}:trac:" to the start of line from 'to-file'. 
     220== Reference == 
     222Here's the online help, as a reminder (`tracd --help`): 
     224Usage: tracd [options] [projenv] ... 
     227  --version             show program's version number and exit 
     228  -h, --help            show this help message and exit 
     229  -a DIGESTAUTH, --auth=DIGESTAUTH 
     230                        [projectdir],[htdigest_file],[realm] 
     231  --basic-auth=BASICAUTH 
     232                        [projectdir],[htpasswd_file],[realm] 
     233  -p PORT, --port=PORT  the port number to bind to 
     234  -b HOSTNAME, --hostname=HOSTNAME 
     235                        the host name or IP address to bind to 
     236  --protocol=PROTOCOL   http|scgi|ajp 
     237  -q, --unquote         unquote PATH_INFO (may be needed when using ajp) 
     238  --http10              use HTTP/1.0 protocol version (default) 
     239  --http11              use HTTP/1.1 protocol version instead of HTTP/1.0 
     240  -e PARENTDIR, --env-parent-dir=PARENTDIR 
     241                        parent directory of the project environments 
     242  --base-path=BASE_PATH 
     243                        the initial portion of the request URL's "path" 
     244  -r, --auto-reload     restart automatically when sources are modified 
     245  -s, --single-env      only serve a single project without the project list 
     248== Tips == 
     250=== Serving static content === 
     252If `tracd` is the only web server used for the project,  
     253it can also be used to distribute static content  
     254(tarballs, Doxygen documentation, etc.) 
     256This static content should be put in the `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs` folder, 
     257and is accessed by URLs like `<project_URL>/chrome/site/...`. 
     259Example: given a `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs/software-0.1.tar.gz` file, 
     260the corresponding relative URL would be `/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz`,  
     261which in turn can be written as `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz` (TracLinks syntax) or `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]` (relative link syntax).  
     263 ''Support for `htdocs:` TracLinks syntax was added in version 0.10'' 
     265=== Using tracd behind a proxy 
     267In some situations when you choose to use tracd behind Apache or another web server. 
     269In this situation, you might experience issues with redirects, like being redirected to URLs with the wrong host or protocol. In this case (and only in this case), setting the `[trac] use_base_url_for_redirect` to `true` can help, as this will force Trac to use the value of `[trac] base_url` for doing the redirects. 
     271If you're using the AJP protocol to connect with `tracd` (which is possible if you have flup installed), then you might experience problems with double quoting. Consider adding the `--unquote` parameter. 
     273See also [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp], [trac:TracNginxRecipe]. 
     275=== Authentication for tracd behind a proxy 
     276It is convenient to provide central external authentication to your tracd instances, instead of using {{{--basic-auth}}}. There is some discussion about this in #9206. 
     278Below is example configuration based on Apache 2.2, mod_proxy, mod_authnz_ldap. 
     280First we bring tracd into Apache's location namespace. 
     283<Location /project/proxified> 
     284        Require ldap-group cn=somegroup, ou=Groups, 
     285        Require ldap-user somespecificusertoo 
     286        ProxyPass http://localhost:8101/project/proxified/ 
     287        # Turns out we don't really need complicated RewriteRules here at all 
     288        RequestHeader set REMOTE_USER %{REMOTE_USER}s 
     292Then we need a single file plugin to recognize HTTP_REMOTE_USER header as valid authentication source. HTTP headers like '''HTTP_FOO_BAR''' will get converted to '''Foo-Bar''' during processing. Name it something like '''''' and drop it into '''proxified/plugins''' directory: 
     295from trac.core import * 
     296from trac.config import BoolOption 
     297from trac.web.api import IAuthenticator 
     299class MyRemoteUserAuthenticator(Component): 
     301    implements(IAuthenticator) 
     303    obey_remote_user_header = BoolOption('trac', 'obey_remote_user_header', 'false',  
     304               """Whether the 'Remote-User:' HTTP header is to be trusted for user logins  
     305                (''since ??.??').""")  
     307    def authenticate(self, req): 
     308        if self.obey_remote_user_header and req.get_header('Remote-User'):  
     309            return req.get_header('Remote-User')  
     310        return None 
     314Add this new parameter to your TracIni: 
     319obey_remote_user_header = true 
     323Run tracd: 
     325tracd -p 8101 -r -s proxified --base-path=/project/proxified 
     328=== Serving a different base path than / === 
     329Tracd supports serving projects with different base urls than /<project>. The parameter name to change this is 
     331 $ tracd --base-path=/some/path 
     335See also: TracInstall, TracCgi, TracModPython, TracGuide, [trac:TracOnWindowsStandalone#RunningTracdasservice Running tracd.exe as a Windows service]